Evolution: summer 2000
Charles Darwin is not a traditional Jewish hero. But he is one of the great sages of Humanistic Judaism. The principles of biological evolution and natural selection lie at the heart of our belief system.
Twenty-five hundred years ago some anonymous priests edited two stories about the invention of life. These stories constitute the first two chapters of the Torah. In the first story God manufactures life in three days – plants first, then animals, and then people. In the second chapter he starts with man. Adam is bored. So God creates plants and animals to amuse him. Adam is still bored. So God conjures up a woman from Adam’s rib. Adam is impressed.
These two stories provide the informational and ideological foundation for traditional Jewish biology. All life is simultaneously created. All life forms have remained the same since their creation. The age of both the universe and life is somewhere around six thousand years.
In most Jewish schools today these stories are still being taught. For liberal Jews they present an enormous problem. They are in obvious contradiction to what modern science teaches. They do not bear the faintest connection with the realities of natural evolution. Only a tortured poetic interpretation can rescue them. They are simply embarrassingly inappropriate. But, since even liberal Jews, whether Reform, Conservative, or Reconstructionist, are stuck with the Torah, they feel compelled to present the stories.
The net result is that liberal Judaism has no strong message on cosmology or biology. No one really believes the traditional stories. But no one is prepared to draft a compelling alternative. One of the cornerstones of an effective philosophy of life, a credible view of where we came from, is neglected. The fundamental questions of the nature of life are relegated to the public school. The synagogue prefers mythology.
This deplorable situation is aggravated by the rise of fundamentalism in Jewish and Christian life. One of the “banners” of this new fanaticism is the defense of the Genesis stories as basically true. Creationism has now reared its absurd head to challenge the principle of evolution. Creationists demote evolution to a mere “theory” despite the overwhelming evidence to support it. And they present their mythology as a theory of equal validity. While Orthodox Jews applaud this development, liberal Jews condemn it. But there is nothing in their prayer books or in their school programs that would give any substance to their resistance. Their approach is negative: “Do not take the stories literally.” “Do not put religion into the public schools.” But there is no positive and enthusiastic defense of evolution. In the end, the temples read the creation story on the Sabbath and teach the creation story in their Sunday schools. The Darwinian story they claim to believe in is never dramatically told.
Humanistic Jews are liberated from the “yoke” of liberal Jewish religion. They do not place the Torah and its stories at the center of their Judaism. They do not need to pay homage to ancient myths and to demonstrate their worth even when that worth is questionable. They are free to create an alternative story that is responsible to evidence and is flexible enough to face constant revision. If they want to, they can write it down in Hebrew and place its words on a parchment scroll, even though the truth of the story is not a function of antiquity. Nor are they afraid to admit that knowledge and wisdom can come from people other than Jews.
If Humanistic Judaism is to function as a complete philosophy of life, then it must provide a dramatic answer to the questions about the origin and nature of life. It must articulate that answer clearly and forcefully so that both children and adults can incorporate it into the foundations of their Judaism. The story of evolution must be a dramatic part of public celebrations, school programs, and textbooks. It must have a prominent place in the presentation of the basic ideas of the movement. There is no need to find a way to connect it to Genesis; all attempts to make that connection distort the meaning of the original myths and only sow confusion.
As a foundational story of Humanistic Judaism, evolution is a powerful saga. The drama of life continually transforming itself in a tough setting of competition and struggle is compelling. The development of life is no serene emergence, with divine decrees conjuring up living forms effortlessly and instantaneously. It is a dangerous ascent, and only a small fraction of the organisms that attempt the climb make it to the top. The hurdle of natural selection is tough to surmount. The fit between organisms and their environment is not an easy one.
Just as the history of the Jews needs to be rescued from the absurd doctrine of the Chosen People, so must the story of life be saved from the destructive embrace of creationism. We need to be continually reminded of the realities of life so that we can cope with it. The message of evolution is not only informational, providing the order in which living things emerged. It also is philosophic, describing a setting for life that rational people can accept and adjust to.
What is the philosophic message of evolution?
- The forces of nature that control our universe and the development of life are natural and impersonal. They have no conscious purpose and no moral agenda. They operate relentlessly, ultimately sweeping most organisms into the garbage can of history. Natural selection may appear to be a cruel judge. It cannot be negotiated with. And it cannot change its mind.
- All life is connected. We are not special creations of God, earthly angels with souls who have no fundamental relationship to the rest of nature. We are made of the same stuff as all other living things. We share the same origins. We share many of the same needs and desires. All the parts of our body and our mind have their roots in the bodies and minds of fish and reptiles and other mammals. Fear, anger, love, and sadness are not uniquely human. They have their counterparts in our animal cousins. We did not begin as fallen gods. We began as walking apes. Feeling our basic connection to all of nature restores balance to our lives and makes us see who we really are. It also makes us more compassionate with the suffering of living beings that are not human.
- There is no fundamental harmony in nature. The living world is filled with many competing agendas. What is survival for the hunter is death for the hunted. What is victory for the invader is destruction for the invaded. Humans and the microbes that afflict their bodies are not in harmony. They are at war with each other. In this world of struggling organisms we have both friends and enemies. There is no way to make every organism our friend. When we can be generous, we ought to be. When the enemy is fierce, we need human allies in the battle.
- Love and ethics emerged in our struggle for survival. Some animals are loners. Others, like us, need community. Each of us is too vulnerable alone. Our evolution has turned us into social beings dependent on the kindness and help of other people. Morality did not fall from heaven. It evolved over millions of years as the price we have to pay for group existence. Over time, natural selection reinforced the tendency within us to work with others and to care for them. All cultures bear the imprint of this conscience.
- Victory is never final. Our survival lasts only so long as we fit our environment. If we destroy the foundation of the environment in which we evolved, we also shall be destroyed. Protecting and improving the natural setting in which we live is as important as any new power we acquire. Power is useless if it blows up the foundation of our existence.
Evolution is our story. It has an important message. It needs to be proclaimed in English, Hebrew, and Yiddish. It needs to be celebrated through holidays and tributes. It needs to be taught clearly and boldly to our adults and our children in the schools we create. As Humanistic Jews we have a powerful answer to the question, what is life? And our answer is not mythology. It is confirmed every day by the testimony of our experience.