Contrary to popular opinion, Jewish religious belief and practice have evolved tremendously over its 3000 years–from polytheism to monotheism, from animal sacrifice to rabbinic prayer and ritual observance. In medieval times, both rationalism and mysticism were devoutly studied in different communities. And Jewish beliefs and practices have always responded to outside developments in science, philosophy, and intellectual culture. Some elements easily transition to a secular age, while others will need to be transformed, and still others discarded as obsolete. Wine’s bold experiments in Jewish thought were also expressed brilliantly in his understanding of Jewish religion and identity.