The cradle of Western Civilization, Europe conquered the world through brains, brawn, and disease. Its ancient cultures of Greece and Rome inspired the philosopher in Sherwin Wine. While its medieval cities, Renaissance art, Enlightenment writers, and Holocaust memorials stimulated the historian. The juxtaposition of past and present was always a stimulus to creativity and insight. And the Jewish life that experienced centuries of fruitful co-existence which came to a tragic end and its rebirth and challenges today offered another angle for Wine to explore.