Humanistic Judaism in Israel – Winter 1985
A secular “yeshiva” now exists. Yes, a secular “yeshiva”!
Headquartered in Jerusalem, the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism is in the process of becoming a full reality. Despite the existence of a century-old tradition of secular Jewish thought, this is the first school of higher Jewish learning to be committed specifically to the presentation of a humanistic perspective on Jewish identity.
How did the institute come into existence? Why was it established? What will it do? Who are the people involved with it? Who will support it?
In October, 1981, a delegation of 40 North American Jews from the Society for Humanistic Judaism met with an equal number of secular Israeli leaders and intellectuals at Kibbutz Shefayim to share ideas and plan for future connections. Among those present were Shulamit Aloni, leader of the Citizens Rights Movement and member of the Knesset; Yehuda Sobel, well-known Israeli playwright; Meir Pail, spokesperson for the dovish Sheli party; and Uri Rapp, professor of the sociology of drama at Tel Aviv University.
A statement of principles, prepared by me, structured the agenda. Out of the two day dialogue emerged a strong awareness of the wide diversity of belief that exists within the secular Jewish world. Nevertheless, a short statement about a Secular Humanistic Judaism was agreed on and signed by most of the people in attendance. Many of the participants expressed the hope that something more concrete and more meaningful would follow.
In July, 1983, under the stimulus of Zev Katz and Yehuda Bauer, professors at the Hebrew University, an organizing celebration with 200 people in attendance was held at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem to announce the establishment of the Israeli Association for Secular Humanistic Judaism. The Kibbutz Artzi movement, the more secular of the two kibbutz federations, offered its support. Prominent academicians from the universities of Jerusalem, Haifa, and Tel Aviv participated in the program. Ultimately, seven small urban communities of Humanistic Jews emerged in the major cities of Israel.
In July, 1985, leaders of the Israeli association, together with leaders of the North American Society for Humanistic Judaism, the Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations, and Americans for a Progressive Israel — as well as Jewish humanists from England, France, and Argentina — met at the Hebrew University to establish a school and research center for Secular Humanistic Judaism. Excitement was high; most participants saw the new international institute as a joint project to bring secular Jews all over the world into a working relationship.
Why the institute? After all, establishing and maintaining a school of higher learning is no easy task. Given the effort that would be required, the mere desire to create some kind of group solidarity was not a sufficient reason. When the idea of an institute first emerged some time before the 1983 meeting, certain compelling reasons presented themselves.
Most secular and humanistic Jews in the world are unaware that they are what they are. The “believers” who do know what they are often lack the knowledge or training to give depth to their convictions. Both groups need education. And effective education requires the planning and the focused creativity that only a school can provide.
Secular Humanistic Judaism needs an intellectual outreach. It needs to recruit and use the enormous number of Jewish men and women in the worlds of academia, writing, and the arts who see themselves as secular Jews but who are so dispersed that they have no opportunity for dialogue with peers who share their outlook. They often have no motivation to promote their Jewish convictions because they are unaware of any audience or community structure that would give their efforts any meaning. If it were possible to recruit one-tenth of the available secular Jewish academicians for the task of explaining and enriching the humanistic point of view, they would constitute a formidable intellectual voice in the Jewish community. Especially in Israel, where the secular commitment has been intense and widespread for many years, the number of potential recruits is significant.
Humanistic Jewish creativity is more than a century old, but most of the results are unavailable to the secular public. They are hidden away in kibbutz archives, culture club files, historical memoirs, and the private collections of talented individuals. No effort has ever really been made to bring them together, to select the best of the secular past so communities can draw upon it for their celebration life. It is amazing how much of the holiday and life cycle creativity of the kibbutz experience is unknown both to urban Israelis and to Diaspora Jews. Only a concerted effort by a research institute can rescue these treasures for posterity.
New literature is an urgent necessity. There are no popular history books of the Jewish people that are unashamedly secular and consistently choose to view the Jewish experience through the eyes of a scientific humanism. There are few popular books on philosophy, ethics, and lifestyle that articulate the secular Jewish point of view and seek to awaken humanistic self-awareness in the reading public, especially young people. There are no readily available celebration manuals for holidays and life cycle ceremonies to offer guidance to humanistically disposed Jews in how to design a satisfying humanistic Jewish ritual. The dearth of pragmatic and inspirational literature is a dramatic deficiency in the effort to create any kind of effective movement. Only a school with ideological commitments can arrange for the creation of this essential literature.
The “monuments” of tradition need attention. In Israel, where the Bible is an intrinsic part of the national consciousness and public education, to leave Bible instruction and Bible interpretation to traditional commentators and ambivalent liberals is to forego an opportunity for creating secular self-awareness. No continuous secular humanistic commentary on the Bible now exists either in Hebrew or in English.
Such a commentary is an enormous task. But it is essential for dramatizing the secular alternative in the eyes of the Jewish public. It is obvious that such an effort, which requires the mobilization of the best scholars in the world of Jewish studies who share the humanistic outlook, can be undertaken only by an institution of higher learning.
Training leaders and spokespeople, both professional and nonprofessional, is essential to the progress of any organized ideology. The continuing success of the religious sector, whether conservative or liberal, is, to a large degree, due to the presence of organized communities with well-trained full-time leaders. And the persistent failure of the secular Jewish world to put its act together in any effective way is partly due to the lack of such communities and the professional leaders that make them possible. The hostility of classic secularists to the influence of the “clergy” — the exaggerated egalitarianism that saw the threat of new elites behind any designated leader — often left urban secular Jewish groups in a perpetual infancy. Trained leaders are necessary, whether they are designated rabbis or madrikhim (guides), whether they serve congregations in North America or urban fellowships in Israel. Only a college with an appropriate faculty can provide that training.
The growing threat of religious fundamentalism is a terrifying development. In Israel, in particular, the bold attempt of the orthodox to assume political power and to turn the Jewish state into a theocratic dictatorship endangers the survival of the secular Zionism that established the modern nation.
The old secular smugness has disappeared. There is real fear now — fear for the democratic future of the state, fear for the ideological future of coming generations. Secular Jews in Israel are aware that they often have failed to transmit their humanistic enthusiasm to their children and their grandchildren, many of whom now have embraced the fundamentalism of their parents’ opponents. Secular Jews are aware that they were too passive about their secular commitments and that they have allowed orthodox militants to penetrate the school system and the army without effective resistance. What the present crisis demands is a trained cadre of humanistic speakers and teachers who would be available to familiarize students and army recruits with Jewish alternatives to orthodoxy and conventional religion. Only a secularist college of Jewish studies can train this cadre.
The institute is the most effective way to create a visible presence for the humanistic Jewish alternative.
While it would be nice to have several humanistic Jewish institutes, each situated in a major Jewish community, such a vision is out of touch with reality. We are presently too few in number to afford more than one. If each regional enclave works separately on this problem, we shall have none. But if we pool our resources and talents internationally and focus on a single school and research center, we shall be successful. The location of the administrative center of that one institute has to be Jerusalem, both because of its Jewish primacy and because the largest number of available faculty are either at the Hebrew University or nearby.
It is clear that there are many compelling reasons for this new institute to be created. As it grows and flourishes, it will serve as a focal point for secular and humanistic Jews all over the world and will rally and unite them in the furtherance of a shared dramatic project.
There are four key figures in the new institute. The honorary chairman is Haim Cohn, former chief justice of the Israeli Supreme Court, a fervent civil libertarian, a leading expert in traditional Jewish law, and a confirmed humanist who boldly states that “the kindest thing you can say about God after the Holocaust is that he does not exist.” The chairman is Yehuda Bauer, professor of history at the Hebrew University, director of the Center for Holocaust Studies, director of the Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, and a major ideologue of the Kibbutz Artzi movement. The dean is Zev Katz, also a professor of history at the Hebrew University, an expert in Russian studies, an international “missionary” for secular Jewish self-awareness, and the person whose energies and determination helped to spark the creation of the Israeli association. The administrator is Youval Tal, native Jerusalemite, public relations maven, and an ardent worker for Jewish educational causes.
Eight departments have been designed, seven for research and one for community outreach and leadership training. The research departments are: Humanism, Traditional Jewish Literature, Modern Jewish Literature, Jewish History, Jewish Holidays and Ceremonies, Law and the State, and Education. The eighth department is the Midrasha, a center for the sponsoring of adult education and training seminars. The Midrasha will be responsible ultimately for the preparation of professional leaders.
Each of these departments at present has an Israeli faculty, with certain additions from North America and Europe. It is hoped that, in time, the faculty will become truly international, embracing academicians, intellectuals, and artists from all over the world. It is also hoped that the programs of the institute will be international seminars to be held in all the major cities where Jews live.
Two projects have been chosen for immediate pursuit. The first is the Holidays Project, a concerted effort to make available in Hebrew and in English the best of the century-old tradition of secular celebration. The second is the Bible Project, a mobilization of scholars to prepare a humanistic commentary on Biblical texts. Both projects, when completed, will have great pragmatic value.
The secular “yeshiva” — despite all the preliminary planning and enthusiasm — will remain only a dream unless it receives the emotional and financial support of the secular humanistic Jewish world. And it deserves our support because it is the most effective way that has yet been devised to create a visible presence for the humanistic Jewish alternative. This moment in history — when both positive and negative forces have transformed the face of world Jewry, and when forces hostile to humanism are so powerful — is the time to organize this institute. The genuineness of our commitment to the future of Humanistic Judaism will be determined by what we do to make this school a reality.