Transforming Judaism- Winter 2004
Forty years ago, in the summer of 1963, eight families and I organized a new congregation in suburban Detroit. The suburb was Birmingham, and so our congregation was named the Birmingham Temple. Ten months later the Temple family collectively abandoned God-language — and Humanistic Judaism was born.
Until that moment most Jews who had given up on God did not organize congregations, accept rabbis as their philosophic leaders, and turn secularism into an organization. But the Birmingham Temple and Humanistic Judaism did. Was this a ludicrous contradiction, or was it the beginning of a viable answer for secular Jews who wanted to remain Jewish?
Well, the Birmingham Temple and Humanistic Judaism are now forty years old. They have confronted the traumas of the sixties, the compromises of the seventies, the ambivalence of the eighties and the nineties. They have witnessed the black revolution, the feminist revolution, the youth revolution, and the sex revolution. They have seen Israel wax and wane. They have lived through antisemitism diminishing and returning. They have even glimpsed the beginning of a globalized world.
Along the way, many formidable challenges appeared. There was the challenge of intermarriage, with its painful confrontation between love and ethnic survival. There was the challenge of New Age religion, with its attractive combination of radical freedom and mystical experience. There was the challenge of creativity: inventing new formats and programs for a Judaism that had never existed before. There was the challenge of liberal Jews who feared the accusation of atheism more than that of hypocrisy. There was the ongoing hostility from the general Jewish community to what was perceived as a provocation beyond the parameters of acceptable deviation.
What have we learned over the past forty years? What has our confrontation with these challenges taught us?
- We have learned that it is better to be a believer than a nonbeliever. Not believing in God is no guide to life. It is a negative assertion that offers only the pleasure of defiance. We Humanistic Jews are believers. We believe in the power of people to change the world for the better. We believe in the right of every individual to be the master of his or her own life. We believe in the adventure of reason as the best way to pursue the truth. On the foundation of our positive beliefs, a powerful philosophy of life can be built.
- We learned that “telling it the way it is” is better than confusing ambiguity. Had we chosen to follow the Reconstructionist lead and redefine God as meaning what it does not mean — in order to play it safe or to preserve the illusion of ideological continuity — we would have ended up praying to unconscious powers that cannot hear our prayers. Acts of worship do not promote an awareness of what it means to be a Humanistic Jew. Only a more radical step could establish the basis for a humanistic lifestyle. Living without magic power means abandoning God-language. It means saying “human power” when you mean “human power.” Hiding behind old words only hides the message. The strength of our message lies in its boldness.
- We learned that it is important never to be a watered-down version of a more powerful Judaism. When you make the Torah the center of Judaism, you hand legitimacy over to the Orthodox. Only they take the Torah and its lifestyle seriously. In contrast, Conservatism and Reform and Reconstructionism — which continue to maintain the centrality of the Torah — are generally viewed as watered-down versions of the original. Humanistic Judaism does not start with the Torah. It starts with the Jewish people and their historic experience — not the mythical experience of Torah and Talmud writers but the real experience depicted by archeology and modern historians. The lessons of Jewish history — especially the need for self-reliance — are the foundation of Humanistic Judaism.
- We learned that there is no substitute for addressing the personal agenda of every individual Jew. Jews are not only Jews. They are individual human beings struggling to find happiness in a stressful world. The old Jewish secularism addressed itself primarily to Jewish nationalism and Jewish culture. Preserving Jewish identity and the Jewish people was its primary focus. In its revolutionary expression it addressed itself to humanity as a whole but rarely to the individual as an individual. Of course, nationalism was a refreshing change from the tyranny of the old religion. But it was never enough. The strength of Humanistic Judaism is that it addresses the human condition in which all individuals find themselves. Talking about Jewish survival is important and necessary. But it needs to be balanced with a concern for personal happiness and personal dignity. The life of courage is Jewish — and more than Jewish.
- We learned that, in many cases, there are no precedents from the Jewish past that can help us. Modern Europe and America have given the Jews, for the first time, the opportunities of a free and open society. Individuals are free to make their own choices about work, marriage, leisure, sex, religion, and politics. Individual freedom undermines the social solidarity that traditional societies foster. The message of the past is to reject individual freedom and insist on group conformity. But, in a free world of growing intermarriage, it seems heartless to give love no place in the ethical equation. Do individuals always sacrifice themselves for their ancestral groups? Or do ancestral groups need to change and be more open? Humanistic Jews have chosen to answer these questions differently than in the past. We are the champions of personal dignity and the open society.
- Finally, we have learned to be optimistic. Optimism is not a passive reflection of current conditions. It is not merely an objective assessment of the obstacles we face in life. If that is what it is, we would not have survived or grown during the past forty years. Optimism is, above all, a choice: a refusal to surrender to despair, a refusal to interpret ambiguous evidence negatively. In the face of overwhelming odds we have chosen “to preach our message” to the Jewish world. The evidence of recent surveys of the Jewish community in North America, dramatizing the existence of huge numbers of self-identified unaffiliated secular Jews, reinforces our choice. We have every reason to be hopeful about our future — not only because the polls are friendly but also because our determination is firm.